Heir to ancient Persia, Iran (officially the Islamic Republic of Iran) is a country in southwest Asia. With 1,648,195 km2, Iran is three times the size of France. It is bordered to the north by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and the Caspian Sea, on the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan to the west by Iraq, northwest Turkey, and bathed in the south by the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf. Its capital is Tehran. Located in the heart of the Middle East, Iran is the only country in this region that is both vast, populous, rich in hydrocarbons, and which forms a state since ancient times.
Iranian landscape is very varied, between Hirkan subtropical forests and rice paddies of Gilan, cold steppes of the high mountains, and the absolute and scorching desert of Lut Dasht-e Lut or. In this country of mountains, the space is always divided into two natural categories: cold highlands (sardsir or yeylâq) and warm areas (or Garmsir qechlâq) where herds are driven in winter. The towns and villages are logically located between these two areas on the foothills.
The climate is continental arid center of the country, with hot summers, cold winters, low humidity (the mountains form a barrier to wind and penetration of maritime influences) and large temperature variations. The shores of the Caspian experiencing a wet and mild maritime climate. To the south, the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea, the climate is tropical. InTehran, the average temperature in July is 30 °, up 40 °. In January, the average is 2, varying between -10 and 10 °.